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The Senate

The Capitol, Washington, DC 20510


Constitutionally Mandated Officers

Constitutionally Mandated Officers
President of the Senate / Vice President of the United StatesKamala D. Harris

President pro temporePatrick J. Leahy

Political Party Leaders

Political Party Leaders
Majority Leader—DemocratCharles E. Schumer

Minority Leader—RepublicanA. Mitchell McConnell

Senate-Elected Officers and Officials

Senate-Elected Officers and Officials
ChaplainBarry C. Black
ParliamentarianElizabeth C. MacDonough

for the MajorityGary B. Myrick
for the MinorityRobert M. Duncan
for the SenateSonceria Berry

Sergeant at ArmsJennifer A. Hemingway, Acting
Organizational Chart


The Senate comprises 100 Members, 2 from each State. Senators are elected to serve for a term of 6 years. There are three classes of Senators, and a new class is elected every 2 years. Senators were originally chosen by the State legislatures. The 17th amendment, which became part of the Constitution in 1913, made their election a function of the people.

A Senator must be a resident of the State that he or she represents. A Senator also must be at least 30 years of age and have been a U.S. citizen for at least 9 years.


The Vice President of the United States is the Presiding Officer of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the duties are taken over by a President pro tempore, elected by that body, or someone designated by the President pro tempore.

The positions of Senate Majority and Minority Leader have been in existence only since the early years of the 20th century. Leaders are elected at the beginning of each new Congress by a majority vote of the Senators in their political party. In cooperation with their party organizations, Leaders are responsible for the design and achievement of a legislative program. This involves managing the flow of legislation, expediting noncontroversial measures, and keeping Members informed regarding proposed action on pending business. Each Leader serves as an ex officio member of his party's policymaking and organizational bodies and is aided by an assistant floor leader (whip) and a party secretary.

The Secretary of the Senate, elected by vote of the Senate, performs the duties of the Presiding Officer of the Senate in the absence of the Vice President and pending the election of a President pro tempore. The Secretary is the custodian of the seal of the Senate, draws requisitions on the Secretary of the Treasury for moneys appropriated for the compensation of Senators, officers, and employees, and for the contingent expenses of the Senate, and is empowered to administer oaths to any officer of the Senate and to any witness produced before it. The Secretary's executive duties include certification of extracts from the Journal of the Senate; the attestation of bills and joint, concurrent, and Senate resolutions; in impeachment trials, issuance, under the authority of the Presiding Officer, of all orders, mandates, writs, and precepts authorized by the Senate; and certification to the President of the United States of the advice and consent of the Senate to ratification of treaties and the names of persons confirmed or rejected upon the nomination of the President.

The Sergeant at Arms, elected by vote of the Senate, serves as the executive, chief law enforcement, and protocol officer and is the principal administrative manager for most support services in the Senate. As executive officer, the Sergeant at Arms has custody of the Senate gavel; enforces Senate rules and regulations as they pertain to the Senate Chamber, the Senate wing of the Capitol, and the Senate office buildings; and subject to the Presiding Officer, maintains order on the Senate floor, Chamber, and galleries. As chief law enforcement officer of the Senate, the Sergeant at Arms is authorized to maintain security in the Capitol and all Senate buildings, as well as to protect Senators; to arrest and detain any person violating Senate rules; and to locate absentee Senators for a quorum. The Sergeant at Arms serves as a member of the Capitol Police Board and as its chairman each odd year. As protocol officer, the Sergeant at Arms escorts the President and other heads of state or official guests of the Senate who are attending official functions in the Capitol; makes arrangements for funerals of Senators who die in office; and assists in planning the inauguration of the President and organizing the swearing-in and orientation programs for newly elected Senators.


The work of preparing and considering legislation is done largely by committees of both Houses of Congress. There are 16 standing committees in the Senate. The standing committees of the Senate are shown in the list below. In addition, there are two select committees in each House and various congressional commissions and joint committees composed of Members of both Houses. Each House may also appoint special investigating committees. The membership of the standing committees of each House is chosen by a vote of the entire body; members of other committees are appointed under the provisions of the measure establishing them.

Each bill and resolution is usually referred to the appropriate committee, which may report a bill out in its original form, favorably or unfavorably, recommend amendments, report original measures, or allow the proposed legislation to die in committee without action.
Committee Chair Website
Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Deborah A. Stabenow
Appropriations Patrick J. Leahy
Armed Services John F. Reed
Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Sherrod C. Brown
Budget Bernard Sanders
Commerce, Science, and Transportation Maria E. Cantwell
Energy and Natural Resources Joseph A. Manchin III
Environment and Public Works Thomas R. Carper
Finance Ronald L. Wyden
Foreign Relations Robert Menendez
Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Patricia L. Murray
Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Gary C. Peters
Indian Affairs Brian E. Schatz
Judiciary Richard J. Durbin
Rules and Administration Amy J. Klobuchar
Small Business and Entrepreneurship Benjamin L. Cardin
Veterans' Affairs R. Jon Tester

Special Powers

Under the Constitution, the Senate is granted certain powers not accorded to the House of Representatives. The Senate approves or disapproves certain Presidential appointments by majority vote, and treaties must be concurred in by a two-thirds vote.

List of U.S. Senators

Information on web pages may be more accurate and current.
Richard C. Shelby 2023—Republican
Thomas H. Tuberville 2027—Republican
Lisa A. Murkowski 2023—Republican
Daniel S. Sullivan 2027—Republican
Mark E. Kelly 2023—Democrat
Kyrsten Sinema 2025—Democrat
John N. Boozman 2023—Republican
Thomas B. Cotton 2027—Republican
Dianne Feinstein 2025—Democrat
Alejandro Padilla 2023—Democrat
Michael F. Bennet 2023—Democrat
John W. Hickenlooper 2027—Democrat
Richard L. Blumenthal 2023—Democrat
Christopher S. Murphy 2025—Democrat
Thomas R. Carper 2025—Democrat
Christopher A. Coons 2027—Democrat
Marco A. Rubio 2023—Republican
Richard L. Scott 2025—Republican
T. Jonathan Ossoff 2027—Democrat
Raphael G. Warnock 2023—Democrat
Mazie K. Hirono 2025—Democrat
Brian E. Schatz 2023—Democrat
Michael D. Crapo 2023—Republican
James E. Risch 2027—Republican
L. Tammy Duckworth 2023—Democrat
Richard J. Durbin 2027—Democrat
Michael K. Braun 2025—Republican
Todd C. Young 2023—Republican
Joni K. Ernst 2027—Republican
Charles E. Grassley 2023—Republican
Roger W. Marshall 2027—Republican
Gerald W. Moran 2023—Republican
A. Mitchell McConnell 2027—Republican
Randal H. Paul 2023—Republican
William M. Cassidy 2027—Republican
John N. Kennedy 2023—Republican
Susan M. Collins 2027—Republican
Angus S. King, Jr. 2025—Independent
Benjamin L. Cardin 2025—Democrat
Christopher Van Hollen, Jr. 2023—Democrat
Edward J. Markey 2027—Democrat
Elizabeth A. Warren 2025—Democrat
Gary C. Peters 2027—Democrat
Deborah A. Stabenow 2025—Democrat
Amy J. Klobuchar 2025—Democrat
Tina F. Smith 2027—Democrat
Cindy Hyde-Smith 2027—Republican
Roger F. Wicker 2025—Republican
Roy D. Blunt 2023—Republican
Joshua D. Hawley 2025—Republican
Steven D. Daines 2027—Republican
R. Jon Tester 2025—Democrat
Debra S. Fischer 2025—Republican
Benjamin E. Sasse 2027—Republican
Catherine Cortez Masto 2023—Democrat
Jacklyn S. Rosen 2025—Democrat
New Hampshire
Margaret Wood Hassan 2023—Democrat
C. Jeanne Shaheen 2027—Democrat
New Jersey
Cory A. Booker 2027—Democrat
Robert Menendez 2025—Democrat
New Mexico
Martin T. Heinrich 2025—Democrat
Benjamin R. Luján 2027—Democrat
New York
Kirsten E. Gillibrand 2025—Democrat
Charles E. Schumer 2023—Democrat
North Carolina
Richard M. Burr 2023—Republican
Thomas R. Tillis 2027—Republican
North Dakota
Kevin Cramer 2025—Republican
John H. Hoeven III 2023—Republican
Sherrod C. Brown 2025—Democrat
Robert J. Portman 2023—Republican
James M. Inhofe 2027—Republican
James Lankford 2023—Republican
Jeffrey A. Merkley 2027—Democrat
Ronald L. Wyden 2023—Democrat
Robert P. Casey, Jr. 2025—Democrat
Patrick J. Toomey 2023—Republican
Rhode Island
John F. Reed 2027—Democrat
Sheldon Whitehouse 2025—Democrat
South Carolina
Lindsey O. Graham 2027—Republican
Timothy E. Scott 2023—Republican
South Dakota
M. Michael Rounds 2027—Republican
John R. Thune 2023—Republican
Marsha W. Blackburn 2025—Republican
William F. Hagerty IV 2027—Republican
John Cornyn III 2027—Republican
R. Edward Cruz 2025—Republican
Michael S. Lee 2023—Republican
W. Milton Romney 2025—Republican
Patrick J. Leahy 2023—Democrat
Bernard Sanders 2025—Independent
Timothy M. Kaine 2025—Democrat
Mark R. Warner 2027—Democrat
Maria E. Cantwell 2025—Democrat
Patricia L. Murray 2023—Democrat
West Virginia
Shelley Moore Capito 2027—Republican
Joseph A. Manchin III 2025—Democrat
Tammy S. Baldwin 2025—Democrat
Ronald H. Johnson 2023—Republican
John A. Barrasso III 2025—Republican
Cynthia M. Lummis 2027—Republican
* * *
Republicans are 50; Democrats are 48; Independents are 2; and there are no vacancies.

Sources of Information


The Senate's collections of ephemera, decorative art, graphic art, paintings, and sculpture can be viewed online. | Email:

Biographical Directory

The online "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774–Present," allows visitors to search for Members of Congress—past and present—by first or last name, political affiliation, position, State, or year or Congress.

Books by Senators

A bibliography of books that Senators who are currently serving in the U.S. Congress have written is available online.

Campaign Finance

The Federal Election Commission maintains a campaign finance database that contains information on candidates, including senatorial candidates, who file reports with the Commission. Users of the online "Candidate and Committee Viewer" can sort data and download them. The data presentations consist of biennial summaries, report summaries, and report images and downloads.

Campaign Websites

The Library of Congress maintains a database of "Archived Web Sites" that includes thousands of official campaign websites. Former senatorial candidates' websites are part of this collection.

Career Opportunities

Information on fellowships, internships, and job openings is available online.

Chaplains of the Senate

Nine of the first ten Senate Chaplains were Episcopalian; one was Presbyterian. Based on a simple denominational count, the history of the Senate chaplaincy has been dominated by Episcopalians (19), Methodists (17), and Presbyterians (14). The total number of chaplains who have filled the office of Senate Chaplain to date is 62.

Children's Books

Links to educational resources are available on the Senate's website.


Information on Senate committees is available online.

Congressional Directory

Prepared by the Joint Committee on Printing, the "Congressional Directory" is the official directory of the U.S. Congress. The Directory contains a short biography of each Member of the Senate; committee memberships, terms of service, administrative assistants and secretaries, and room and telephone numbers for Senators; lists of court officials, military establishments, and other Federal departments and agencies, including District of Columbia government officials, governors of States and territories, foreign diplomats, and members of the press, radio, and television galleries.

Congressional Record

Starting with the year 1995, the official record of the proceedings and debates of the U.S. Congress is available on

Starting with the year 1994, the official record of the proceedings and debates of the U.S. Congress is available on the Government Publishing Office's govinfo website.

Contact Information

The address for sending postal correspondence to a Senator or Senate committee is available online. Secretary of the Senate: Phone, 202-224-2115. U.S. Capitol switchboard: Phone, 202-224-3121.

Phone numbers, postal addresses, and online forms are available for contacting a Senator.

An online list of States also provides web forms for contacting a Senator via email.


A Senate glossary is available online.


The Senate Historical Office has told the history of the Senate, from the First Federal Congress of 1789 through the early 21st century; explained its traditions; described the individuals who served in its Chamber, and examined the major issues that confronted these national leaders. | Email:

How To . . .

Many congressional and other Government documents are available online. The Senate's website has resources that explain how to find materials related to the Senate and the general legislative process.

Legislation / Records

Research guides and resources are available online.

Member Profiles

The "Members of the U.S. Congress" database contains profiles for Senators who have held office since 1973 or were still serving in the 93d Congress. Users of the database can filter profiles by chamber, Congress, political affiliation, and State or U.S. Territory. A Member profile includes the following: dates of service, State represented, party affiliation, and a picture when available, as well as a link to the Member's entry in the "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774–Present" and a link to remarks made in the "Congressional Record." A profile also includes the list of legislation that the Member sponsored and cosponsored.


The "Congressional Directory," the "Senate Manual," and telephone directory for the U.S. Senate are available from the Government Publishing Office's bookstore. Phone, 202-512-0132. | Email:

States Represented by Senators

The "States in the Senate" web page provides a short description of each State's history in the U.S. Senate.

Statistics / Lists

Statistics on and lists regarding a variety of topics—including cloture, nominations, roll call votes, Senate history, senators, and much more—are available online.


More information on legislation and the U.S. Senate is available on

More information also is available on the Government Publishing Office's govinfo website.